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Canada in 1977
1977
nineteen seventy-seven

In 1927, Canada celebrated the 60th anniversary of Confederation with the first cross-country radio broadcast. The government also began instituting the social safety net, when the Old-Age Pension Act was introduced. In the same year, the British Privy Council got involved in another land dispute ― this time a fight between Newfoundland and Quebec over Labrador. The Privy Council awarded it to Newfoundland. As in much of North America and Europe, the 1930s were a devastating decade for Canadians, as the Great Depression took hold. By 1935, 10 percent of Canadians were dependent on some form of financial relief, and workers from government-sponsored relief camps were rioting in Regina over wages and working conditions. The effects of the Depression faded with the beginning of the Second World War, which was declared in 1939.

The war years saw a continuation of Canada's increasing socialism. Unemployment Insurance was introduced in 1940, and Saskatchewan elected the first socialist government in North America when Tommy Douglas's Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) won in 1944. The social goodwill did not seem to apply to the whole population. In 1942, the property of Japanese-Canadians was confiscated and 22,000 were relocated from coastal B.C. to the Interior and elsewhere in Canada because of anti-Japanese hostilities that arose after the attack on Pearl Harbour. The war ended in 1945. In all, a million Canadians had fought and approximately 42,000 were killed. In 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. The British Privy Council lost its role in Canada that same year, when the Canadian Supreme Court became the final court of appeal. By 1951, postwar immigration - more than 100,000 a year - had pushed the population beyond 14 million. The Indian Act was also revised that year to limit coverage of Native peoples, excluding Native women who married non-Native men. This change was rescinded in 1985. In 1967, Canada celebrated its centennial and hosted Expo 67 in Montréal. Charles de Gaulle, the president of France, also made his famous speech in Montréal, declaring "Vive le Quebec libre!" The armed forces changed that year too, when the Army, Navy and Air Force were unified into the Canadian Armed Forces. Montréal was the site of more international celebrations in 1976, when the Summer Olympic Games were held there. René Lévesque, leader of the separatist Parti Quebecois, became the premier of Quebec that same year.

Boundary Changes

  • 1999 After more than 20 years of negotiations, the territory of Nunavut is established.

GLOSSARY TERMS

Old-Age Pension: First financed by the federal and provincial governments in 1927, paying up to $20 a month to residents 70 years and older. The Canadian Pension Plan was established in 1966.

Great Depression: Economic depression between 1929 and 1933 when the Gross National Expenditures decreased 42 percent and when one in five Canadians depended on government aid to survive. The downturn was sparked by decreases in world trade and repeated crop failures in the Prairies.

Second World War: The 1939-45 war where the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy and Japan) were defeated by the alliance of the U.S., Canada, U.K., Australia, New Zealand and Soviet Union. It started with the German invasion of Poland in 1939 and ended with the dropping of nuclear bombs on Japan in 1945. Fifty-five million lives were lost.

Tommy Douglas: Led the first socialist government elected in Canada, and known as the father of socialized medicine. He was elected to the federal government in 1935 for the Saskatchewan Cooperative Commonwealth. He resigned from the federal government in 1944 and became the premier of Saskatchewan, where he remained for 17 years.

Supreme Court of Canada: Highest court for all legal issues since 1949. It replaced the functions of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom.

Indian Act: The main federal statute that deals with aboriginal status, local government and management of reserves and communal budgets. The current act was passed in 1951 and has undergone a number of amendments since.

Expo '67: International exhibition held in Montréal in 1967 to help celebrate Canada's centennial.

Charles de Gaulle: President of France from 1959-69 who encouraged Québec's nationalist movement. Known in Canada for his rousing pro-Quebec speech in Montréal in 1967, which concluded: "Vive Montréal! Vive le Quebec! Vive le Quebec libre!"

René Lévesque: Member of the Québec Liberal Party from 1961-67. He left the party in 1967 and founded the Parti Québecois, which won the provincial election in 1976 and made Lévesque premier, a post he held until 1985. The party advocated Quebec's succession from Canada.

Nunavut: Canada's newest territory in the eastern Arctic which was established April 1, 1999. It covers 1,994,000 square kilometres and has a population of 27,219 — 85 percent of which are Inuit.

GLOSSARY TERMS

Old-Age Pension: First financed by the federal and provincial governments in 1927, paying up to $20 a month to residents 70 years and older. The Canadian Pension Plan was established in 1966.

Great Depression: Economic depression between 1929 and 1933 when the Gross National Expenditures decreased 42 percent and when one in five Canadians depended on government aid to survive. The downturn was sparked by decreases in world trade and repeated crop failures in the Prairies.

Second World War: The 1939-45 war where the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy and Japan) were defeated by the alliance of the U.S., Canada, U.K., Australia, New Zealand and Soviet Union. It started with the German invasion of Poland in 1939 and ended with the dropping of nuclear bombs on Japan in 1945. Fifty-five million lives were lost.

Tommy Douglas: Led the first socialist government elected in Canada, and known as the father of socialized medicine. He was elected to the federal government in 1935 for the Saskatchewan Cooperative Commonwealth. He resigned from the federal government in 1944 and became the premier of Saskatchewan, where he remained for 17 years.

Supreme Court of Canada: Highest court for all legal issues since 1949. It replaced the functions of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom.

Indian Act: The main federal statute that deals with aboriginal status, local government and management of reserves and communal budgets. The current act was passed in 1951 and has undergone a number of amendments since.

Expo '67: International exhibition held in Montréal in 1967 to help celebrate Canada's centennial.

Charles de Gaulle: President of France from 1959-69 who encouraged Québec's nationalist movement. Known in Canada for his rousing pro-Quebec speech in Montréal in 1967, which concluded: "Vive Montréal! Vive le Quebec! Vive le Quebec libre!"

René Lévesque: Member of the Québec Liberal Party from 1961-67. He left the party in 1967 and founded the Parti Québecois, which won the provincial election in 1976 and made Lévesque premier, a post he held until 1985. The party advocated Quebec's succession from Canada.

Nunavut: Canada's newest territory in the eastern Arctic which was established April 1, 1999. It covers 1,994,000 square kilometres and has a population of 27,219 — 85 percent of which are Inuit.





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