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Canada in 1873
1873
eighteen seventy-three

In 1873, Macdonald created the North West Mounted Police to act as law enforcement for the North-West Territories. The constables of the NWMP apprehended criminals, while the officers tried them. This meant the integrity of the members of the force was vitally important.

The NWMP were originally meant to be a temporary provision ― until provincial administrators were able to implement local law enforcement ― but their success and popularity led them to become a permanent fixture. The Intercolonial Railway, which joined Ontario and Quebec to the Maritimes, was completed in 1876. But the Transcontinental Railway was delayed when the Macdonald government was forced to resign in 1873 because of the Pacific Scandal, since accusations of corruption in the railway project abounded. The project would not restart until he was re-elected in 1878. It was then that the construction began in earnest. The Canadian Pacific Railway Company was incorporated to work on the railroad in 1881, and would continue working on the lines for four years.

Boundary Changes

  • 1876 A new administrative region, the District of Keewatin is formed from part of North-West Territories
  • 1877 Ontario borders extend north and west
  • 1880 Arctic Islands are transferred to Canada as part of the North-West Territories
  • 1881 Manitoba's boundaries are extended east, but this is disputed by Ontario
  • 1882 Districts of Assiniboia, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Athabaska are created for postal and administrative purposes

GLOSSARY TERMS

Canadian Pacific Railway Company: A transcontinental railway built within ten years was a condition of B.C.'s entry into Confederation in 1871. The Canadian Pacific Railway Company was incorporated Feb. 16, 1881, and the last spike was driven in B.C. at the end of 1885.

Keewatin: A district of the Northwest Territories which, in Ojibwa, means "north wind."

Assiniboia: A provisional district of the North-West Territories between 1882 and 1905, situated at the southern part of present-day Saskatchewan and Alberta.

Saskatchewan: Limits of this prairie province were set in 1905. Name is derived from an anglicized version of a Cree word meaning "swiftly flowing river".

Alberta: The Marquees of Lorne named this prairie province in 1882 for his wife, Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, daughter of Queen Victoria.

Athabaska: Established in 1905, it has Canada's largest deposits of oil and natural gas. A provisional district of the North-West Territories. Named from a Cree word meaning "where there are reeds" (in reference to a river on the southwest side of the current Lake Athabasca.)

GLOSSARY TERMS

Canadian Pacific Railway Company: A transcontinental railway built within ten years was a condition of B.C.'s entry into Confederation in 1871. The Canadian Pacific Railway Company was incorporated Feb. 16, 1881, and the last spike was driven in B.C. at the end of 1885.

Keewatin: A district of the Northwest Territories which, in Ojibwa, means "north wind."

Assiniboia: A provisional district of the North-West Territories between 1882 and 1905, situated at the southern part of present-day Saskatchewan and Alberta.

Saskatchewan: Limits of this prairie province were set in 1905. Name is derived from an anglicized version of a Cree word meaning "swiftly flowing river".

Alberta: The Marquees of Lorne named this prairie province in 1882 for his wife, Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, daughter of Queen Victoria.

Athabaska: Established in 1905, it has Canada's largest deposits of oil and natural gas. A provisional district of the North-West Territories. Named from a Cree word meaning "where there are reeds" (in reference to a river on the southwest side of the current Lake Athabasca.)





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