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Canada in 1825
1825
eighteen twenty-five

After the war of 1812, immigration to British North America led to a more diversified economy, with lumbering, farming and shipbuilding growing in both the Maritimes and in the Canadas. But by the 1830s there was a great deal of unrest, partly because of economic distress, partly because of the cultural prejudice against the French-speaking Canadiens in Lower Canada, and partly due to the system of government, which gave relatively little power to the elected assembly. In November 1837, Louis-Joseph Papineau and his radical Parti Patriote led a rebellion against this unfair government structure, but the rebels were not well organized and were readily defeated by British forces. Similarly, in Upper Canada, William Lyon Mackenzie, a newspaper editor and member of the elected assembly, led a rebellion that was also quashed. But two uprisings made British officials realize they had to reform the government system.

Britain reformed the government and united Upper and Lower Canada in 1841 into the Province of Canada. Throughout this period, British colonies enjoyed a preferential trading relationship with the motherland, whereby Britain imposed lower tariffs on goods imported from colonies. In 1846, Britain began a limited free trade with the United States, ending this preferential treatment for the colonies and forcing them to establish free trade with the United States and to increase trade among themselves. Meanwhile, in 1836 Canada's first rail line opened between St. Johns, Que., and La Prairie, Que. And Britain continued to expand its colonies, building Fort Victoria in 1843 to establish its claim to Vancouver Island.

Boundary Changes

  • 1840 The Province of Canada is created by uniting Upper Canada and Lower Canada (which are renamed Canada West and Canada East )
  • 1849 Border along the 49th parallel is extended to the Pacific Ocean, and the colony of Vancouver Island is established

GLOSSARY TERMS

Canadiens: French-speaking Canadians who refused assimilation and affirmed their existence after the English took over French territory. They developed a way of life, through their language and religious affiliations, and shaped social customs of their own.

Louis-Joseph Papineau: A lawyer, seigneur and politician who saw himself as a defender of French Canada. Emerging from a group of young nationalists as leader of the Parti Canadien, he led a fight to control political institutions in Lower Canada.

Parti Patriote: Founded in the early 1800s as the Parti Canadien (changed to Parti Patriote after 1826), a political party made up mainly of middle-class French Canadian professionals and merchants. With Louis-Joseph Papineau as its head, the party opposed an 1822 proposal to unite Canada.

William Lyon Mackenzie: Colourful and fiery politician and journalist who was the first mayor of Toronto. He published the first issue of the Colonial Advocate, the voice of the Reform movement, in May 1824, and led the Rebellions of 1837.

Fort Victoria: Became the Pacific headquarters for the Hudson's Bay Co. in 1843. Sat on the harbour where Victoria, B.C., is now situated.

Vancouver: Now the largest city in B.C. and the third largest in Canada. Named for Captain George Vancouver, an English naval officer who first explored the area in 1792.

GLOSSARY TERMS

Canadiens: French-speaking Canadians who refused assimilation and affirmed their existence after the English took over French territory. They developed a way of life, through their language and religious affiliations, and shaped social customs of their own.

Louis-Joseph Papineau: A lawyer, seigneur and politician who saw himself as a defender of French Canada. Emerging from a group of young nationalists as leader of the Parti Canadien, he led a fight to control political institutions in Lower Canada.

Parti Patriote: Founded in the early 1800s as the Parti Canadien (changed to Parti Patriote after 1826), a political party made up mainly of middle-class French Canadian professionals and merchants. With Louis-Joseph Papineau as its head, the party opposed an 1822 proposal to unite Canada.

William Lyon Mackenzie: Colourful and fiery politician and journalist who was the first mayor of Toronto. He published the first issue of the Colonial Advocate, the voice of the Reform movement, in May 1824, and led the Rebellions of 1837.

Fort Victoria: Became the Pacific headquarters for the Hudson's Bay Co. in 1843. Sat on the harbour where Victoria, B.C., is now situated.

Vancouver: Now the largest city in B.C. and the third largest in Canada. Named for Captain George Vancouver, an English naval officer who first explored the area in 1792.





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