Subscribe and save!
mapping / historical maps

Canada in 1700
1700
seventeen hundred

In 1534, Jacques Cartier arrived in what is now Canada and claimed the territory for the King of France, Francis I. The riches he had expected to find were not easily accessed, so he returned home. The French returned some 70 years later when Samuel de Champlain arrived, and this time, they were here to stay. They established control of the territory around Quebec, first through a fur-trading company, and then through a government established by Louis XIV. The French established the seigneurial system of land tenure, the Catholic Church and a thriving fur trade in the new territory.

The French control of Canada ended in 1760 with the fall of Montréal to the British. Under the Treaty of Paris, the French retained control of fishing rights in Newfoundland, acquired title to Saint Pierre, Miquelon, and regained control of its islands in the West Indies. On mainland, the British quickly established control, particularly in the merchant capital of Montréal, and expected an influx of British colonists soon after they took over. But the colonists did not come. Eventually, the British governor of Quebec, Sir Guy Carleton, convinced the British government that the population - which was predominantly French - should be governed according to familiar laws. As a result, in 1774, the Quebec Act restored French civil law, while maintaining British criminal law, and guaranteeing religious freedom for Roman Catholics. The Act, and the placement of such a large region under the jurisdiction of Quebec, infuriated colonists in the American Colonies. Propagandists fighting for the American Revolutionary cause used the information to promote action on the part of the colonists. A year later, two American armies invaded Quebec in a takeover - an act that helped ignite the American Revolution.

GLOSSARY TERMS

Jacques Cartier: French navigator and explorer who discovered the St. Lawrence River and led three expeditions in the region between 1534 and 1542.

King Francis I: Succeeded his cousin and father-in-law King Louis XII as King of France from 1515 to 1547. Jacques Cartier explored the coast of North America for him, establishing a French presence in the New World. The French Renaissance also flourished under his reign.

Samuel de Champlain: Cartographer and explorer who first travelled the St. Lawrence in 1603. Known as "the Father of New France" for his involvement in mapping and planning a French colony, he was appointed governor of New France in 1633.

Québec: Canada's largest province accounts for 15.5 % of the country's landmass. It is the only dominantly French-speaking territory in North America. Originally named for the Iroquois word Quebec, meaning "where the waters narrow" (referring to the narrowing of the St. Lawrence upriver from Îlse d’Orléans near Québec City).

Louis XIV: Because of the brilliance of his court, he was known as the "Roi du soleil" (Sun King). He built the grand palace of Versailles outside Paris to serve out his tenure as King of France (1643 and 1715).

Seigneurial system: A land and occupation system established in New France in 1627 and abolished in 1854. Based on the feudal system, land was granted as fiefs and seigneuries to influential colonists who then granted tenancies to others. Long, slender rectangles of land (rangs) all bordered the river and were adapted to local terrain.

Montréal: Now the second-largest city in Canada, it was for more than 150 years the biggest. It is located at the confluence of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers and is named for Mont Royal, the 232-metre mountain that rises from its centre.

Saint Pierre & Miquelon: Nine small islands that fall under French rule in the Gulf of St. Lawrence south of Newfoundland. Their proximity to the Grand Banks makes them an ideal location for fishing, but offshore fishing has been an issue of contention between the islands and Canada since the 1960s.

Sir Guy Carleton: The first Baron of Dorchester, governor of Quebec and a British commander during the American Revolution. He helped foster the Quebec Act of 1774.

Quebec Act of 1774: British parliament passed the act to institute a permanent administration in Canada. It helped foster better relations between the British and French Canadians since it gave French religious freedom and restored French from civil law. The act also kept Canada loyal to Britain during the American Revolution.

American Colonies: First original 13 that fought for independence from Great Britain in the American Revolution included: New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.

American Revolution: The American War of Independence (1775-83) was initiated by the 13 colonies in a bid for independence from Great Britain. The colonies signed the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. The war had been sparked by disputes over taxes, administration of land and the provisions of the Royal Proclamation of 1763 and the Quebec Act.

GLOSSARY TERMS

Jacques Cartier: French navigator and explorer who discovered the St. Lawrence River and led three expeditions in the region between 1534 and 1542.

King Francis I: Succeeded his cousin and father-in-law King Louis XII as King of France from 1515 to 1547. Jacques Cartier explored the coast of North America for him, establishing a French presence in the New World. The French Renaissance also flourished under his reign.

Samuel de Champlain: Cartographer and explorer who first travelled the St. Lawrence in 1603. Known as "the Father of New France" for his involvement in mapping and planning a French colony, he was appointed governor of New France in 1633.

Québec: Canada's largest province accounts for 15.5 % of the country's landmass. It is the only dominantly French-speaking territory in North America. Originally named for the Iroquois word Quebec, meaning "where the waters narrow" (referring to the narrowing of the St. Lawrence upriver from Îlse d’Orléans near Québec City).

Louis XIV: Because of the brilliance of his court, he was known as the "Roi du soleil" (Sun King). He built the grand palace of Versailles outside Paris to serve out his tenure as King of France (1643 and 1715).

Seigneurial system: A land and occupation system established in New France in 1627 and abolished in 1854. Based on the feudal system, land was granted as fiefs and seigneuries to influential colonists who then granted tenancies to others. Long, slender rectangles of land (rangs) all bordered the river and were adapted to local terrain.

Montréal: Now the second-largest city in Canada, it was for more than 150 years the biggest. It is located at the confluence of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers and is named for Mont Royal, the 232-metre mountain that rises from its centre.

Saint Pierre & Miquelon: Nine small islands that fall under French rule in the Gulf of St. Lawrence south of Newfoundland. Their proximity to the Grand Banks makes them an ideal location for fishing, but offshore fishing has been an issue of contention between the islands and Canada since the 1960s.

Sir Guy Carleton: The first Baron of Dorchester, governor of Quebec and a British commander during the American Revolution. He helped foster the Quebec Act of 1774.

Quebec Act of 1774: British parliament passed the act to institute a permanent administration in Canada. It helped foster better relations between the British and French Canadians since it gave French religious freedom and restored French from civil law. The act also kept Canada loyal to Britain during the American Revolution.

American Colonies: First original 13 that fought for independence from Great Britain in the American Revolution included: New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.

American Revolution: The American War of Independence (1775-83) was initiated by the 13 colonies in a bid for independence from Great Britain. The colonies signed the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. The war had been sparked by disputes over taxes, administration of land and the provisions of the Royal Proclamation of 1763 and the Quebec Act.





Advertisement

Canadian Geographic Magazine | Canadian Geographic Travel Magazine
Canadian Atlas Online | Canadian Travel | CG Education | Mapping & Cartography | Canadian Geographic Photo Club | Kids | Canadian Contests | Canadian Lesson Plans | Blog

Royal Canadian Geographical Society | Canadian Geographic Education | Geography Challenge | Canadian Award for Environmental Innovation

Jobs | Internships | Submission Guidelines

© 2014 Canadian Geographic Enterprises