||November/December 2002 issue||
Windblown, rocky and jammed with marine traffic, the waters off Vancouver Island
are laden with navigational perils
By Steven Fick and Eric Harris
It was cold and foggy at 15 minutes to midnight on Jan. 22, 1906, when the SS
Valencia crashed into the jagged shoals south of Cape Beale on the west coast of
Vancouver Island. The 1,450-tonne iron ship, bound for Victoria from San Francisco
with 108 passengers and a crew of 65, had steamed right past the entrance to Juan
de Fuca Strait. Darkness, thick weather, heavy seas and strong currents had combined
to convince the captain he was still safely off the coast of Washington.
In the ensuing 48 hours, as the seas pounded the ship to the point of collapse,
passengers, crew and wishful rescuers engaged in a drama unsurpassed in Canadian
shipwreck history. More lives have been lost in other ship disasters, but not in
a circumstance where rescue vessels stood within sight but could not approach,
where victims fell from riggings or drowned or were thrown against the rocks while
bystanders watched helplessly from shore. In all, 136 people perished.
waters around Vancouver Island generally, and Juan de Fuca Strait specifically,
are treacherous at best, deadly at worst. More than 500 vessels have foundered
here since the 1850s (right), when the era of European settlement, gold rushes
and ship trade began. True, thousands of ships have wrecked off the East Coast,
but that toll spans a 500-year time frame (see CG Nov/Dec
2001.) Wreckage litters the B.C. coastline, especially around the beaches and
points of Pacific Rim National Park Reserve, which is widely called the "Graveyard
of the Pacific."
|Click image to enlarge|
"Southeast or southwest winds, reinforced by northerly inshore currents,
carry ships faster than expected as they search for Cape Flattery and the entrance
to the strait," says Peter Waddell, a Parks Canada marine archaeologist. "This
is how many of the 200 or more ships in the Pacific Rim shipwreck inventory met
Where do you get most of your geographic knowledge?