Canada’s Natural Highway

Lesson Overview:

Trade is the lifeblood of any nation, province or region whether it is local, within your province, between provinces or global trade with other companies from around the world.  Our every day lives as Canadians are intertwined with the trade that occurs at our nation’s ports and what moves up and down the St. Lawrence Seaway. The questions that need to be answered are: How much trade comes into Canada via the Seaway and where does it come from? How much trade goes out of Canada via the Seaway and where does it go?  How is it possible for this to happen given the challenges of the physical geography of Canada? Students will do online research, complete graphic organizers and create a map to answer the above questions.

Grade Level:

Grades 4-8 (The lesson could also be modified for any high school physical geography class or Canadian geography class)

Time Required:

Teachers should be able to conduct the lesson in two or three classes (60 minutes classes)

Curriculum Connection:

General Curriculum Outcomes

Atlantic Provinces Curriculum for Social Studies: Council of Atlantic Ministers of Education and Training (CAMET): Prince Edward Island

People, Places and Environment

Students will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of the interactions among people, places and the environment.

 

Link to the Canadian Atlas Online (CAOL):

www.canadiangeographic.ca/atlas/

Additional Resources, Materials and Equipment Required:

Computer and Internet Access

The Canadian Atlas Online website at www.canadiangeographic.ca/atlas

Copies in print or online of the booklet ‘We’ve got a good thing flowing HWYH2O: The Great Lakes St. Lawrence Seaway System’ - www.hwyh20.com

Students will need copies of a blank map of Canada and the world

 

Main Objective:

Using the Canadian Atlas Online, introduce students to the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway System. In particular, help students to understand how the St. Lawrence Seaway came into being. Students will be informed about trade on the Seaway and its benefits both in economic and environmental terms.

came into being. Students will be informed about trade on the Seaway and its benefits both in economic and environmental terms.

Learning Outcomes:

By the end of the lesson, students will be able to:

 

The Lesson:

 

Development

Teacher Activity

Student Activity

Introduction

How will the lesson open?

 

Ask students to name the Great Lakes. What do they know about the Great Lakes? What connects the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean? How are ships able to sail from the Atlantic Ocean to the Port of Thunder Bay in Ontario? Why are canals important?

What types of goods are transported up and down the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway?

 

Respond to teacher’s questions about the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway.

 

Lesson Development

Detail point by point how the lesson will develop by student and teacher activity.

Direct students to the Canadian Atlas Online to research details about the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway. They are to complete the worksheet entitled “Canadian Atlas Online Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway”.

 

Provide students with the second worksheet and briefly explain that they will be using two websites to learn about the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence, Seaway and HWYH2O. http://www.greatlakes-seaway.com/en/

http://www.hwyh20.com/

 

Students are to continue to explore the http://www.hwyh20.com/ web link and to focus on the economic benefit of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway to the region.

Students will look at the port cities of Halifax and Saint John and the economic benefits of cargo ships.

 

Port of Halifax container statistics

http://www.portofhalifax.ca/english/about-us/statistics/index.html

 

Port of Saint John container statistics

http://www.sjport.com/english/about/tonnage_statistics.html

 

Students will create a map of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway including the following: label the Great Lakes, St. Lawrence River, Atlantic Ocean, Halifax, Saint John, Quebec City, Montreal, Prescott, Toronto, Windsor, Thunder Bay, plus six other cities or locks. Their map needs to have a border, directional arrow, title, key and scale.

Students will complete the worksheet entitled “Canadian Atlas Online Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway”.

 

Students will complete the worksheet entitled “Why the waterway is the better way”.

 

 

 

Students will be given time to explore the http://www.hwyh20.com/ link.

 

Students will read and make jot notes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Students will create a map of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway.

Conclusion

 

Students will reflect on two critical questions and write a response on the critical question worksheet.

ü       Environmentally speaking, does the use of cargo ships make good sense?

ü       What are some of the economic benefits to ports cities and their surrounding areas in Canada?

 

Students will answer the two questions and pass in their answers.

 

Lesson Extension:

1. Students can perform historical research on the Montreal/Lake Ontario section of the Seaway or the Welland Canal section of the Seaway. They can present their research on a poster board or in a PowerPoint format. Include in the research how a canal works.

2. Students will write an essay on the necessity of trade for a country. They will complete the graphic organizer called Essay Graphic Organizer. When this is done they will write a five-paragraph essay. The essay will contain: an introduction with a clear thesis statement, four supporting paragraphs with supporting details and a strong conclusion.

Assessment of Student Learning:

Teacher will assess the students’ answers, worksheets as well as the map and Critical Thinking question.

Further Reading:

http://canadiangeographic.ca/atlas/intro.aspx?lang=En

www.hwyh20.com

http://www.greatlakes-seaway.com/en/

http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/Atlas/themes.aspx?id=mixedwood&sub=mixedwood_features_seaway

Read the text provided and be sure to click on the map animations.

http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/Atlas/themes.aspx?id=connecting&sub=connecting_transportation_water

Look at and read about the waterways of Canada.

http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/Atlas/themes.aspx?id=first&sub=first_basics_timeline

This is a timeline of many defining moments that have contributed to making Canada the country it is today. Click on the map and listen to the synopsis. The year 1959 marks the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway.

 

Port of Halifax container statistics

http://www.portofhalifax.ca/english/about-us/statistics/index.html

Port of Saint John container statistics

http://www.sjport.com/english/about/tonnage_statistics.html

Statistics Canada

http://www.statcan.gc.ca/start-debut-eng.html

Link to Canadian National Geography Standards:

Essential Element#4: Human Systems

 

Essential Element#5: Environment and Society

Geographic Skill #1: Asking Geographic Questions

·         Identify geographic issues, define geographic problems and pose geographic questions.

 

Geographic Skill #2: Acquiring Geographic information

·         Use a variety of research skills to locate and collect geographic data.

 

Geographic Skill #3: Organizing Geographic Information:

 

Geographic Skill #4: Analyzing Geographic Information


Canada’s Natural Highway

Canadian Atlas Online: Great Lakes St. Lawrence Seaway

 WORKSHEET #1

à      Go to this link: http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/Atlas/themes.aspx?id=mixedwood&sub=mixedwood_features_seaway

Read the text “The Lakes and the Seaway” and complete the following questions:

1. Name the Great Lakes: _________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

2. How big are the Great Lakes? _________________________________________________________________________

3. What is the maximum size of ship that the Seaway can handle?

_________________________________________________________________________

à      Go to this link:

http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/Atlas/themes.aspx?id=connecting&sub=connecting_transportation_water

Read the text “Waterways” and answer the following question:

4. What are some of the major products transported on the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

à      Go to this link:  (Click on the map and listen to the synopsis)

http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/Atlas/themes.aspx?id=first&sub=first_basics_timeline

5. Why do you think that the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway was included in the timeline of many defining moments that have contributed to making Canada?

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

 

 

Canada’s Natural Highway

WORKSHEET #2
‘Why the waterway is the better way...’

à      Go to this link: http://www.greatlakes-seaway.com/en/

Look on the left and click on “For students and educators”. Read ‘Why the waterway is the better way...

1. What does Hwy H2O mean? ________________________________________________

2. How many people does Hwy H2O potentially impact?

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

3. What types of commodities have moved through the St. Lawrence Seaway System?

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

4. Why is using Hwy H2O better for energy conservation than using trains or trucks as alternative methods for moving commodities?

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

à      Go to this link: http://www.hwyh20.com/

5. How does the Hwy H2O link the world to the U.S. and Canadian mid-continent?
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

6. How does Hwy H2O serve this region of Canada and the US?
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

7. What is the economic impact of the Hwy H2O?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

 

 

Answer Key to Work Sheet Questions

Answers to questions for Canadian Atlas Online: Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway Worksheet:

1. The names of the Great Lakes are Lake Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie and Ontario.

2. The overall surface area of the lakes is 246,000 square km or 20 percent of the Earth’s surface freshwater.

3. The maximum size for a ship is up to 222.5 m long, 23.2 m wide and loaded to a maximum draft of 7.9 m.

4. Some of the major products are grain, coal and iron ore.

5. Student answers may vary.

Answers to the questions for the reading ‘Why the waterway is the better way... ’WORKSHEET:

1. Hwy H2O is a 3,700-kilometer (2,300 mile) marine highway that runs between Canada and the United States.

2. Approximately 100 million people or roughly one quarter of the Canada/U.S. combined population.

3. Since its inception in 1959, various commodities have moved through the St. Lawrence Seaway System including: iron ore; grain; coke; aggregates; furnace slags; semi-finished steel; pig iron and various chemicals.

4. Yes, because greater fuel efficiency is realized as ships use only 10% to 20% of the energy required by trucks. A ship can move a tonne of freight up to 800 km (500 miles) on 4 litres of fuel (1 gallon). A single ship can carry as much cargo as three 100-unit trains or 870 truckloads, guaranteeing highly competitive unit costs.

5. Hwy H2O begins with the St. Lawrence River connection to the Atlantic Ocean. The waterway extends into the heart of North America, with the ports of Duluth (United States) and Thunder Bay (Canada) representing its most westerly access. The majority of Hwy H2O ports are closer to European markets than East Coast or Gulf ports. For instance, Montreal is closer to Rotterdam than most eastern seaboard ports. Cleveland is closer to Hamburg than Baltimore in nautical miles.

6. The Hwy H2O serves this region in the following ways.

a)     Accounts for approximately 40% of U.S. manufacturing.

b)     Produces two-thirds of Canada’s industrial output.

c)     Creates more than 1/3 of the continent’s gross national product.

d)     Grows almost half of the soybeans and corn in the U.S.

7. Some of the economic impact is:

a)     Waterborne shipping is the mode of transport for 3/4 of the planet’s international trade.

b)     The value of goods transported by water in North America is valued at over $300 billion annually.

c)     Maritime commerce on Hwy H2O annually generates more than $4.3 billion in personal income, $3.4 billion in transportation-related revenue and $1.3 billion in federal, state and local taxes.

 

 

 

 


Canada’s Natural Highway

Critical Thinking Questions

 WORKSHEET #3

 

1.  Explain why the use of cargo ships make good sense for the environment.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. What are some the economic benefits to ports cities and their surrounding areas in Canada?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

            

 


Canada’s Natural Highway

Lesson Extension Graphic Organizer

 

 

 

 

Canada’s Natural Highway