Canadian Geographic
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Building Canada

Building a nation


1867
On July 1, 1867, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and the Province of Canada unite to form the Dominion of Canada. The Province of Canada is divided into Ontario and Quebec. In 1870, Canada acquires the Northwest Territories from the Hudson’s Bay Company, and Manitoba becomes Canada’s fifth province.
1871
In 1871, British Columbia joins Confederation as the sixth province, followed in 1873 by Prince Edward Island as the seventh. In 1876, the District of Keewatin is created from part of the Northwest Territories. In 1880, British rights to the Arctic islands pass to Canada. In 1881, the boundaries of Manitoba are extended eastward, an expansion that is contested by Ontario.

1895
In 1895, the districts of Ungava, Mackenzie, Yukon, and Franklin join the existing districts in the Northwest Territories. The creation of the Franklin District acknowledges the inclusion of the Arctic islands in Canada. Three years later, the District of Yukon becomes a territory.

1905
Alberta and Saskatchewan become the eighth and ninth provinces. The District of Keewatin is transferred back to the Northwest Territories. The boundaries of the renamed Northwest Territories are redefined one year later.

1912
Ontario and Manitoba attain their present boundaries. Quebec’s northern boundary is extended to Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait. In 1927, the boundary dispute between Quebec and Labrador is settled when Labrador is ceded to Newfoundland. The dispute began in 1902 when Newfoundland started lumber operations along the Churchill River.

1949
After a series of closely contested referendums to decide its political future, Newfoundland enters Confederation as the tenth province of Canada.

1999
A third territory, Nunavut, is created by absorbing the eastern mainland portion of the Northwest Territories and most of the northern Arctic islands.

Synopsis

Canada's Confederation progression The animation shows the growth of Canada. Following the narration, labels indicate the year each province joined Confederation, starting with the original four in 1867. As each province or territory becomes part of the country, it is shown in colour. At the end of the animation, the viewer can click on each province or territory to see a text box with details about it.

Content (Narration)

On July 1, 1867, four provinces unite to form the Dominion of Canada. Three years later, Canada acquires the Northwest Territories, and Manitoba becomes Canada’s fifth province.

In 1871, British Columbia joins Confederation, followed by Prince Edward Island two years later. In 1880, British rights to the Arctic islands, pass to Canada.

In 1895, the districts of Ungava, Mackenzie, Yukon, and Franklin join the Northwest Territories. Three years later, Yukon becomes a territory.

1905 marks the year Alberta and Saskatchewan become the eighth and ninth provinces. The boundaries of the Northwest Territories are redefined one year later.

In 1912, Ontario and Manitoba establish their present boundaries, and Quebec’s northern boundary is extended. In 1927, Labrador is ceded to Newfoundland.

Newfoundland enters Confederation as the tenth province in 1949.

Nunavut, Canada’s third territory, is created by absorbing portions of the Northwest Territories in 1999.

Click on the Provinces and Territories to discover more facts and figures.

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Timeline


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Quiz :

The completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway opened up the West. When did this happen?

1873
1885
1867